2.2.2. Construction of dictionaries and graphs

2.2.2.1. Creation of dictionaries

I implemented a script in R allowing to convert csv files into Unitex dictionaries. These csv files contain the ecosystem services forms and the entities concerning ecosystem services extracted by Elise Tancoigne with CorTexT:

Generated dictionaries have the following format: form,main form.type of dictionary+category1+category2
The result of this script are these dictionaries:

2.2.2.2. Creation of graphs

I have created 39 graphs with Unitex. These graphs are divided in 7 categories:

  • Verbal forms
  • Goal/Expected
  • Composed graphs
  • Ecosystem services
  • Ecosystems
  • Themes
  • Entities

It can be download here: graphs.zip 

The documentation of these graphs can be download here: description_graphes_v1.xls

2.2.2.2.1 Verbal forms

The verbal forms’ graphs have created to characterize verbal tenses used in projects and observe the context which the verbs are used, in order to propose other graphs. There are three types of verbal forms’ graphs:

  • « Future » graph which recognizes all future verbal forms (Figure 1)
  • « Past » graph which recognizes all past verbal forms (Figure 2)
  • « Present » graph which recognizes all present verbal forms (Figure 3)

grf_future

Figure 1: Future

grf_past

Figure 2: Past

grf_presentFigure 3: Present

2.2.2.2.2. Goals/Expected

The graphs of goals and expected (Figures 4 and 5) allow to know if authors of project abstracts have defined goals and expected of their project.

grf_goalFigure 4: Goals

grf_expected

Figure 5: Expected

2.2.2.2.3. Composed graphs

The concordances of graphs on verbal forms, goals and expected of a project don’t allow to determine if a project talks about ecosystem services or if it refers to methods and techniques. That’s why, I created the graphs goal_se2, expected_se2, future_se2, present_se2, past_se2 allowing to filter the lines of projects which contain ecosystem services forms.

grf_future_se2

Figure 6: Future and ecosystem services

grf_past_se2

Figure 7: Past and ecosystem services

grf_present_se2

Figure 8: Present and ecosystem services

grf_goal_se2

Figure 9: Goals and ecosystem services

grf_expected_se2

Figure 10: Expected and ecosystem services

By observing the concordances files of these graphs, we can notice the presence of methods, approaches, techniques, experiments, prediction, models, process, mecanisms and keywords indicating that researchers of the project seek to measure, identify, analyse, quantify, understand something in relation with ecosystem services. I have therefore established a list of keywords that may indicate a level 3:

<mecanism>+<model>+<approach>+<experiment>+<technique>+<process>+<pattern>+<understand>+<analyse>+<identify>+<method>+<relationship>+<methodology>+<quantify>+<predict>+<measure>+<investigate>+<linkage>+<link>+<association>+<interaction>+<relation>+<dynamic>

grf_se2_niveau3

Figure 11: Ecosystem services and keywords of level 3

grf_regWOS_niveau3

Figure 12: Query WOS and keywords of level 3

2.2.2.2.4. Ecosystem services

I have constructed 11 graphs about ecosystem services:

  • Graph which recognizes the expression « ecosystem service » (Figure 13)
  • Graph which recognizes the expression « ecosystem function » (Figure 14)
  • Graph which recognizes a service or a function (Figure 15)
  • Graph which recognizes a production or provision of ecosystem services (Figure 16)
  • Graph which recognizes the Elise Tancoigne’s query (Figure 17)
  • Graph which recognizes the dictionary 1 of ecosystem services se1 (Figure 18)
  • Graph which recognizes the dictionary 2 of ecosystem services se2 (Figure 19)
  • Graphs which recognize the four types of ecosystem services:
    • Provision (Figure 20)
    • Regulation (Figure 21)
    • Support (Figure 22)
    • Cultural (Figure 23)

grf_ecosystem_service

Figure 13: Ecosystem service

grf_ecosystem_function

Figure 14: Ecosystem function

grf_service_function

Figure 15: Service or function

grf_production_provision

Figure 16: Production or provision of ecosystem services

grf_reqWOS

Figure 17: Query WOS

grf_se1

Figure 18: Ecosystem services 1

grf_se2

Figure 19: Ecosystem services 2

grf_provision

Figure 20: Provision

grf_regulation

Figure 21: Regulation

grf_support

Figure 22: Support

grf_cultural

Figure 23: Cultural

2.2.2.2.5. Ecosystems

There three types of ecosystem graphs:

  • graph which recognizes all occurrences of the term « ecosystem » except « ecosystem service » and « ecosystem function » (Figure 24)
  • graph which recognizes all types of ecosystems (Figure 25)
  • graph which recognizes the types of temperate agriculture ecosystems (Figure 26)

grf_ecosystem

Figure 24: Ecosystem

grf_types_ecosystems

Figure 25: Types of ecosystems

grf_types_ecosystems_tempag

Figure 26: Types of ecosystems of temperate agriculture

2.2.2.2.6. Themes

We try to define projects which correspond to these themes:

  • Agriculture (Figure 27)
  • Biodiversity (Figure 28)
  • Resilience (Figure 29)

 

grf_agricultural

Figure 27: Agricultural

grf_biodiversity

Figure 28: Bioversity

grf_resilience

Figure 29: Resilience

2.2.2.2.7. Entities

The Tancoigne’s study have defined 8 types of ecosystem services entities:

  • Actions
  • Disservices
  • Services
  • Fields
  • Management
  • Organisms
  • Places
  • Vu

We have created 10 graphs which correspond to these categories.

grf_entity

Figure 30: Entity

grf_action

Figure 31: Actions

grf_disservice

Figure 32: Disservices

grf_fields

Figure 33: Fields

grf_management

Figure 34: Management

grf_orgamism

Figure 35: Organisms

grf_place

Figure 36: Places

grf_service

Figure 37: Services

grf_vu

Figure 38: Vu

grf_composedwords

Figure 39: Composed words